As African American writer and civil rights activist Audre Lorde雷电竞娱乐 once said: "Women are powerful and dangerous." Perhaps it wouldn't be far-fetched to say that women are a lot more powerful and dangerous when they decide to throw their hats into the ring of American politics.
These 10 African American women made history as the first in their communities to be elected to the . Discover more about their lives, the issues that inspired them and the ways in which they broke down barriers, both racial and gender-based, in American politics.
Shirley Chisholm (D-NY), 1969-83
Representing the 12th district of New York, Shirley Chisholm雷电竞娱乐 became the first Black woman elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1969. While in office, Chisholm fought for the same issues that she had been passionate about as a community activist: children's education and welfare, a guaranteed minimum income to help the poor, immigration rights and women's rights.the following year.
After her failed bid for the presidency, Chisholm continued her work in Congress, establishing a lot of new ground along the way. In 1977, she co-founded the Congressional Women's Caucus. After leaving Congress in 1983, Chisholm co-founded the National Political Congress of Black Women and campaigned for Jesse Jackson雷电竞娱乐's presidential bids.
Yvonne Brathwaite Burke (D-CA), 1973-79
雷电竞娱乐In 1972, Yvonne Brathwaite Burke became the first African American woman from California to win a House seat. While she achieved many historic firsts, such as serving as the first female chair of the Congressional Black Caucus (CBC) as well as earning a coveted spot in the Appropriations Committee, Burke is most known for being the first congresswoman to have given birth and been granted maternity leave while in office.by three more years. She also proposed the Displaced Homemakers Act, which helped women in challenging circumstances re-enter the workforce. In 1978, she also sought to protect pregnant women against workplace discrimination before retiring from Congress the following year.
Barbara Jordan (D-TX), 1973-79
As the first Black woman elected to Congress from the Deep South, Barbara Jordan was a politician who focused on local community interests rather than broader issues like women's and civil rights. Aiming to get things done, she worked within the established power structures and avoided committing to any particular interest group.
Jordan took a seat on the Education and Labor Committee, as well as on the Judiciary Committee. It is the latter assignment that propelled her to national fame when, in 1974, President Richard Nixon雷电竞娱乐 was under consideration for impeachment for the .. She also served as President Bill Clinton雷电竞娱乐's appointee for the Commission on Immigration Reform in 1994.
Cardiss Collins (D-IL), 1973-97
With the sudden death of her husband, Representative George Collins, in 1972, Cardiss Collins chose to continue his legacy and fill his vacant seat. Despite having no political experience, Collins was elected by Chicago voters and would go on to serve 12 consecutive terms in Congress, becoming one of the longest-serving minority members in its history.
雷电竞娱乐Being loyal to the local politics of her city, Collins focused on housing and economic development for Chicago's low-income families and worked on similar legislation on the national level. In 1979, she became the Congressional Black Caucus' second chairwoman, which enhanced her stature in the House.
雷电竞娱乐Other issues Collins promoted were affirmative action programs, including the Airport and Airway Safety, Capacity and Expansion Act of 1987, which pushed for women and minority-run businesses in the industry. In 1993 she introduced the Equality in Athletic Disclosure Act, which encouraged gender equity in collegiate sports and, as an advocate for women's health, co-sponsored the Universal Health Care Act and the Health Security Act that same year. She also introduced a bill that would designate October as National Breast Cancer Awareness Month.
Katie Hall (D-IN), 1982-85
Katie Hall didn't anticipate becoming the first Black female from Indiana to serve in the U.S. House of Representatives, but with the sudden death of Indiana Democratic Representative Adam Benjamin Jr. in 1982, she became the choice pick to fill his vacant seat and won.
Hall focused on labor, education and women's issues, but her most memorable legislative mark was becoming chairwoman of the Post Office and Civil Service Subcommittee on Census and Population. It was there that she introduced a bill to make Martin Luther King Jr.'s birthday a national holiday. After much negotiation and persistence, she (338 to 90), and on November 2, 1983, President Ronald Reagan signed it into law.
雷电竞娱乐After Hall failed to win her re-election bid in 1984, she stayed active in Indiana politics, serving on Gary's housing board and becoming city clerk. In 2003, she was charged with federal mail fraud, to which she plead guilty.
Barbara-Rose Collins (D-MI), 1991-97
Single mother Barbara-Rose Collins rose up the ranks of Detroit politics, becoming a champion for the city's poorest neighborhoods. When she entered Congress in 1991, she focused and fought hard on several local issues: advocating for minorities, providing economic assistance to the poor and promoting the preservation of Black families.
雷电竞娱乐In addition to her House duties, Collins also became a member of the Congressional Black Caucus and the Congressional Women’s Caucus and was the Majority Whip At-Large (1993-94). While she eventually approved the final version of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Collins vehemently opposed President Clinton's crime bill, stating it would disproportionately affect minorities in a negative way.. In 1996, federal authorities investigated her for alleged abuse of scholarship and campaign funds, which led to the end of her career as a representative. Still, she remained politically active back home, earning a position on Detroit's city council.
Eva M. Clayton (D-NC), 1992-2003
As the first Black congresswoman representing the state of North Carolina — she was also the state's second Black representative since 1901 — Eva M. Clayton built her political career on helping protect her rural district's agricultural interests, as well as providing federal aid to disadvantaged Black communities.
Because many of her constituents were poor tobacco farmers, Clayton, who would eventually become a ranking Democratic member on the Agriculture Committee’s Operations, Oversight, Nutrition, and Forestry Subcommittee, supported the extension of tobacco subsidies. She also successfully protected affordable housing under the Agriculture Department's Section 515 program.
Clayton secured billions of dollars in relief aid when damaged North Carolina in 1999, helped organize a campaign to encourage African Americans to become homeowners and was a key opponent against the GOP's attempt at cutting federal aid for summer job programs for youth.
Carrie Meek (D-FL), 1993-2003era.
Despite her grandmotherly demeanor, there was nothing meek about Meek. In her first year, she fought hard and secured a spot on the House Appropriations Committee — something unheard of for a freshman member of Congress.
雷电竞娱乐She focused on immigration and natural disaster issues that affected her constituents, fighting for visa extensions for refugees and immigrants and proposing a measure to allow for household workers to receive Social Security benefits.
Although she was known for working across the aisle — she collaborated with Republicans on health measures and on providing grant money for college students with learning disabilities — Meek passionately opposed GOP-proposed cuts to welfare programs that would disproportionately affect minorities and the elderly.
Due to her advancing age, Meek decided not to seek re-election in 2002. That same year, however, her youngest child, Kendrick Meek, decided to build upon her legacy. He ran for his mother's empty seat and won, proudly succeeding her.
Denise Majette (D-GA), 2003-2005
雷电竞娱乐With the support of then-Georgia governor Zell Miller, who was on his way to becoming a U.S. senator, Denise Majette won a sweeping victory in the state's general election to become a U.S. House representative starting in 2003.
Although her career in Congress was brief, she became Democratic president of her freshman class and an Assistant Democratic Whip, fighting for issues that would help her fellow Georgians, such as bringing tourism funds to her representative district, protecting federal funding on education initiatives and increasing spending for youth programs like Head Start. Majette spoke critically against the George W. Bush administration's record on handling domestic abuse issues, and she voted against the Republicans' overhaul of Medicare in 2003.
雷电竞娱乐Majette surprised many of her colleagues when she decided to run for Miller's vacated Senate seat in 2004. Her successful grassroots campaign made her the first Black woman from Georgia to secure a nomination for the , but she lost in the general election. In 2006 she also lost her bid for Georgia superintendent of schools.
Majette continued working as an attorney in private practice until 2014 when she was disbarred by the Georgia Supreme Court for overbilling her clients and misleading the court on what she was owed in legal fees.
Cynthia McKinney (D-GA), 1993-2003, 2005-07
雷电竞娱乐As the daughter of Bill McKinney, one of Georgia's first Black police officers who also served as a state legislator and civil rights activist, Cynthia McKinney was born a firebrand. McKinney grew up protesting against racial injustice alongside her father, and together, they became the first father-daughter duo to serve in Georgia's state legislature at the same time.
雷电竞娱乐When McKinney won her bid for Congress in 1992, she made history as the first Black woman from Georgia elected to the House. She immediately gained a reputation for her unusual style — gold tennis shoes and a Mickey Mouse watch became her trademark accouterments — but she was also a politician of fiery substance, known for being a workhorse and a confrontational legislator.in 1999 and the sanctions against Iraq. beforehand, but did nothing to stop them in order to benefit from the spoils of war. This, along with other criticisms on the national front, pushed Georgia voters away from McKinney at the polls, and they opted for her more moderate primary challenger, Denise Majette.
雷电竞娱乐Still, McKinney won back her seat two years later, making her one of the few congresswomen to serve nonconsecutive terms. After finishing up her career in the House, McKinney ran for president as a Green Party candidate in 2008.